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iRAP Website -

The iRAP website contains project reports, publications, and useful overviews. 

iRAP Tool kit  -

The iRAP toolkit contains detailed suggestions on how deal with a large variety of safety problems and specific technical advice on the safety performance of various road engineering solutions.

ViDA -

ViDA is the RAP analysis tool that enables the calculation of Star Ratings and creation Safer Roads Investment Plans.

iRAP Publications

Vaccines for Roads (2nd Edition)

Star Rating Roads for Safety: the iRAP Methodology

Barriers to Change: Designing Safe Roads for Motorcyclists

Crash Rate-Star Rating Comparison Paper

Development of Risk Models for the Road Assessment Programme

Road Deaths in Developing Countries: the Challenge of Dysfunctional Roads

Saving Lives Through Investment in Safer Roads - the iRAP Partnership

The True Cost of Road Crashes: Valuing Life and the Cost of a Serious Injury

Vehicle Speeds and the iRAP Protocols

Before and After Studies Using Crash Data and iRAP Protocols

Safe Roads for Development

Star Rating Road Improvements

In addtion individual project report documents can be found in the in the assessment reports section of the iRAP website

Academic Papers

AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety (2006)  uSRAP: feasibility assessment and pilot programme.   American Automobile Association, Washington

Agent, KR, Stamatiadis, N & Jones, S (1996), Development of accident reduction factors, Kentucky Transportation Centre, University of Kentucky, United States of America.

Austroads (2000), Pedestrian and cyclist safety – pedestrian crashes at pedestrian facilities, Austroads, Sydney, Australia.

Austroads (2001) Economic evaluation of road investment proposals: improved prediction models for road crash savings, AP-R184/01, Austroads, Sydney, NSW.

Austroads (2004) Guide to traffic engineering practice - treatment of crash locations, publication no. APG11.4/ 04, Canberra, Australia.

Austroads (2004) Investigation of the relationship between sealed shoulder widths and crashes on dual carriageway rural roads.

Austroads (2009) Guide to road safety – part 8: treatment of crash locations, Austroads, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Asian Development Bank (1999)   Vulnerable Road Users in the Asian and Pacific Region.  Report compiled by Ross Silcock and TRL.

AusRAP (2006)   Star Ratings: Australia’s National Network of Roads.  Australian Automobile Association   Available from

Baas, P, Charlton, S & de Jong D (2001) Review of Lane Delineation, Transport Engineering Research NZ, Maukau City, New Zealand.

Bureau of Transport Economics (BTE) (2001) The black spot program 1996-2002: An evaluation of the first three years, report no. 104, Bureau of Transport Economics (BTE), Canberra, Australia.

Cairney, P (1996) Evaluation of audible edgelines, Contract Report CR C5567, ARRB Transport Research Ltd, Victoria, Australia.

Cairney P (1999) Pedestrian safety in Australia, publication no. FHWA-RD-99-093, US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, Virginia, America.

Cairney, P & Bennett, P (2009) Surface Characteristics and Crash Occurrence on Selected Roads in Australia. Austroads, Sydney, Australia.

Calcote L R et al (1985)  Determination of the Operational Performance for a Roadside Accident Countermeasure System.  Final Report on FHWA Contract No. DOT-FH-11-9523, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas, 1985. 

Cameron, M & Elvik, R (2008) ‘Nilsson’s Power Model connecting speed and road trauma: does it apply on urban roads?’, Australasian road safety research, policing and education conference, 2008, Adelaide, South Australia, Department for Transport, Energy and Infrastructure, Walkerville, SA.

Castle J, Lynam D, Martin J, Lawson S D, and Klassen N (2007) Star rating roads for safety: UK trials 2006-7.   Available from

Chapman, R G (1978) Accidents on urban arterial roads.  TRRL Report LR838, Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, UK. 

Corben, B Newstead, S Diamantopoulou, K & Cameron, M (1996) Results of an evaluation of TAC funded accident black spot treatments. Combined 18th ARRB Transport Research.

Corben, B, Deery, H, Mullan, N & Dyte, D (1997) The general effectiveness of countermeasures for crashes into fixed roadside objects, report no. 111, Monash University Accident Research Centre, Clayton, Vic.

Corben B F, Logan D B and Oxley J A (2008) Star rating school walking routes, MUARC Report No. 275, Melbourne, Australia.

Cooper P (1980)  Analysis of Roadside Encroachments - Single-Vehicle Run-off-Road Accident Data Analysis for Five Provinces.  B. C. Research, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. 

Council, F and Stewart J R (1999) Safety effects of the conversion of rural two-lane to four-lane roadways based on cross-sectional models. Transportation Research Record, 1665, 35-43.

Creasey, T & Agent, K R (1985) Development of accident reduction factors, research report UKTRP-85-6, University of Kentucky, Kentucky Transportation Research Program, Lexington, KY.

CSIR (1992)  Pedestrian Facility Guidelines: Manual to Plan, design and Maintain Safe Pedestrian Facilities.   Council for Scientific and Industrial Research.  Research Report RR92/126.  South Africa Department of Transport.

Davies D G, Taylor M C, Ryley T J, and Halliday M (1997) Cyclists at roundabouts – the effects of ‘continental’ design on predicted safety and capacity (TRL 285)  Crowthorne: Transport Research Laboratory

Davies DG (1999) Research, development, and implementation of pedestrian safety facilities in the United Kingdom, publication no. FHWWA-RD-99-089, US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, Virginia, USA.

Donald, D (1997) Be warned! A review of curve warning signs and curve advisory speeds. ARRB report 304, Vermont South, Australia.

Eckstein K and V. Meewes (2002) Safety of Junctions along rural carriageways Sicherheit von Landstraßen-Knotenpunkten, Institut für Straßenverkehr Köln, Nr. 40, Köln 2002

Elvik R and Vaa T (2004)   The Handbook of Road Safety Measures   Elsevier 2004

Elvik, R, Christensen, P, & Amundsen, A (2004) Speed and road accidents: An evaluation of the Power Model. TOI Report 740/2004. Institute of Transport Economics: Oslo.

ERSO (2008) Papers on “Speeding” and “Roads”.    European Road Safety Observatory.    Available on

Federal Highway Administration, (2009) Safety Evaluation of lane and shoulder width combinations onrural, two-lane, undivided roads. FHWA Publication No. FHWA-HRT-09-032.

FHWA (2006)   Priority, Market Ready Technologies and Innovations   FHWA-HRT-06-048 Federal Highway Administration, Washington

FORS 1996, Monograph 8: Pedestrian casualties: children in early school years, viewed 14 July 2008, <>.

Geoplan (1994) Evaluation of pedestrian road safety facilities, Report for NSW Roads and Traffic Authority Road Safety Bureau, Geoplan Urban and Traffic Planning, Sydney, NSW.

Gluck J, Levinson H S, and V Stover (1999)  Impacts of access management techniques.  NCHRP Report 420.  Transportation Research Board, Washington

Harnen S, Radin Umar R S, and Wong S V (2003)  Predictive model for injury accidents at three-legged priority junctions.  Traffic Injury Prevention Vol 4 (n 4) p 363-9.

Harwood D.W., Council F.M., Hauer E., Hughes W.E., and Vogt A. (2000) Prediction of the expected safety performance of rural two-lane highways, Report No. FWHA-RD-99-207, Federal Highway Administration, Washington

Harwood D W, Torbic D J, Gilmore D K, Bokenkroger C D, Dunn J M, Zegeer C V, Srinivasan R, Carter D, Raborn C, Lyon C & Persaud B (2008) Pedestrian safety prediction methodology, NCHRP web-only

document 129: Phase III, Transportation Research Board, viewed 13 August 2008,


Harwood, D W, K M Bauer, D K Gilmore, R Souleyrette, and Z N Hans, Validation of the usRAP Star Rating Protocol for Application to Safety Management of U.S. Roads, Transportation Research Record, 2010 (in press).

Heimbach, C, Cribbins, P & Chang, M (1983) ‘Some partial consequences of reduced traffic lane widths on urban arterials’, Transportation Research Record, no. 923, pp. 69-72.

Hills, B L, Baguley C J, and Kirk S J (2002) Cost and Safety Efficient Design of Rural roads in Developing Countries.  Final Report DFID Project R6891. Crowthorne: Transport Research Laboratory.

Hughes W, Amis G and A Walford (1997) Accidents on rural roads; dual carriageway ‘A’ class roads.  AA Foundation for Road Safety Research, Basingstoke

Hutchinson J W and T W Kennedy (1966)  Medians of Divided Highways - Frequency and Nature of Vehicle Encroachments.  Engineering Experiment Station Bulletin 487, University of Illinois.  

iRAP (2008) Vaccines for roads: the new iRAP tools and their pilot application. Worting House, Basingstoke. Available from

Jensen S U (1999) ‘Pedestrian safety in Denmark’, Journal of the Transportation Research Board,Transportation Research Record 1674, pp.61-69.

Jensen S U, Andersen T, Hansen W, Kjærgaard E, Krag T, Larsen JE, la Cour Lund B & Thost P (2000) Collection of cycling concepts, Road Directorate, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Jurewicz, C, Bennett, P (2009) Road safety engineering risk assessment – part 7: crash rates database, Austroads project number ST1428, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Jurewicz, C, & Turner, B (2009) Infrastructure/speed limit relationship in relation to road safety outcomes, Austroads project ST1433, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Kellermann,G (2000) Experience of using the hard shoulder to improve traffic flows Source: Traffic Engineering and Control. 2000/11. 41(10) pp412-4. Hemming Group, 32 Vauxhall Bridge Road, London, SW1V 2SS, United Kingdom

Kennedy J V, Hall R D, and Barnard S R (1997) Accidents at urban mini-roundabouts (TRL 281)  Crowthorne: Transport Research Laboratory

Kneebone, DC (1964) ‘Advisory speed signs and their effect on traffic’, Proc. Australian Road Research Board Conference, 2nd, 1964, Melbourne, vol.2, no.1, Australian Road Research Board, Vermont South, Vic., pp.524-41.

Knuiman M W, Council F M, Reinfurt D W, and S-P Miaou (1993)   Association of median width and highway accident rates.    Transportation Research Record 1401     Transportation Research Board, Washington

Kulmala, R (1994) ‘Measuring the safety effect of road measures at junctions’, Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 781-794, USA.

Lamm, R Zumkeller, K & Beck, A (2001) ‘Traffic safety - the relative effectiveness of a variety of road markings and traffic control devices’, Road Safety on Three Continents, 2000, Pretoria, South Africa, VTI Konferens, No: 15A, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linkoping, Sweden.

Lamm R, Beck A, Ruscher T, and Mailaender T (2007) How to make Two-Lane Rural roads Safer  WIT Press Southampton, UK.

Larsson, M, Candappa, N and Corben, B 2003, Flexible barrier systems along high speed roads: a life saving opportunity. Monash University Accident Research Centre, Report 210.

Lawson, S D (1986)  Descriptions and predictions of accidents on urban arterial routes. Traffic Engineering & Control.  Vol 27, 6, June 310-319.

Lynam D, (2010 RPN113, TRL, Crowthorne, UK

Lynam D, Sutch T, Broughton J and Lawson S D (2003)   European Road Assessment Programme – completing the pilot phase – 2001 & 2002.  Traffic Engineering and Control, May, vol 44, No 5.

Lynam D, Hummel T, Barker J, Lawson S D and Hill J (2004)   EuroRAP Year 1 (2003) update – performance tracking of roads.  Traffic Engineering and Control, 45, No 8.

Lynam D A (2005)   The Development of Accident Mapping as part of the European Road Assessment Programme. In:  TRL Annual Research Review, 2005.  Crowthorne: Transport Research Laboratory.

Lynam D A and Lawson S D (2005). Potential for risk reductions on British inter-urban major roads. Traffic Engineering and Control, 46, No 10.

Lynam D A and Kennedy J V (2005) The travel of errant vehicles after leaving the carriageway (PPR298).   Crowthorne: Transport Research Laboratory.  

Lynam D, Nilsson G, Morsink P, Sexton B, Twisk D, Goldenbeld C, and Wegman F (2005)  An extended study of the development of road safety in Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands.  Crowthorne: Transport Research Laboratory

Lynam D, Castle J, Scoons J, Lawson S D, Hill J and Charman S (2007)  EuroRAP II Technical Report (2005-6)   Available from

Martin J, Lynam D, and Crinson L (2009)  EuroRAP Road Protection Score: Highways Agency Network, Stage II results (RPN296) Crowthorne: Transport Research Laboratory.

Maycock G and Hall R D (1984)  Accidents at 4-arm roundabouts (LR1120)  Crowthorne: Transport Research Laboratory.

McGuigan D R D (1982) Non-junction accident rates and their use in blackspot identification.  Traffic Engineering and Control 23 (2) February 60-65.

McMahon PJ, Zegeer CV, Duncan C, Knoblauch RL, Stewart JR and Khattak AJ 2002, An analysis of factors contributing to ‘walking along roadway’ crashes: Research study and guidelines for sidewalks and walkways, FHWA-RD-01-101, Federal Highway Administration,

McLean, Virginia, United States. NCHRP 2005, Highway Safety Manual – Revised Annotated Outline – March 2005.

McLean, J (1996) Review of accidents and urban arterial cross-section treatments, research report ARR 309, ARRB Transport Research, Vermont South, Victoria.

Meewes V, and H Kuler (2001)    Abstand von Baumen zum Fahrrand – Sinnvolle Standorte neuer Baume.    Verkehrstechnisches Institut der Deutschen Versicherer.  Mitteilungen Nr 39.

Moses, P (1987) ‘Combating the road toll’, National Local Government Engineering Conference, 4th, 1987, Perth, WA, Institution of Engineers, Australia, Barton, ACT, pp.70-4.

Motevalli V, Dahdah S, and Cuadrado J (2008) " Analysis of 1994–1998 Pedestrian Crash Data Study Conducted by National Automotive Sampling System" , Transportation Research Board, Washington

NCHRP (2005) Highway Safety Manual – Revised Annotated Outline – March 2005.

New Zealand Transport Agency (2009) KiwiRAP summary report, New Zeeland Transport Agency, Waka Kotahi, New Zealand, unpublished.

Nilsson, G (1982)   The effects of speed limits on traffic crashes in Sweden.  Proceedings of the international symposium on the effects of speed limits on traffic crashes and fuel consumption.  Dublin.   OCED Paris

Nilsson, G (2004)  Traffic safety dimensions and the power model to describe the effect of speed on safety.   Bulletin 221, Lund Institute of Technology, Lund.

Norfolk County Council & Norwich City Council (2006) Prince of Wales Road, Norwich – Mixed Priority Route Safety Scheme, IHT/BP Bitumen Road Safety Award submission.

OECD (1999). Safety Strategies for Rural Roads. Road transport and Intermodal research report.  Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.  Paris.

OECD (2008) Towards Zero: Ambitious road safety targets and the Safe System Approach. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Paris

Ogden, K (1992) Benefit / Cost Analysis of Road Trauma Countermeasures: Rural Road and Traffic Management Program. Transportation Research Board, 2009. Impact of shoulder width and median width on safety. National Cooperative Highway Research Program Report 633. Washington D.C.

Ogden K W (1996) Safer Roads: A Guide to Road Safety Engineering.  Avery Technical, Aldershot UK

Ogden K (1997)  The effects of paved shoulders on accidents on rural highways     Accident Analysis & Prevention   v29 n3 p353-62

Oxley J, Corben B & Fildes B (2004) Older vulnerable road users: measures to reduce crash and injury risk, MUARC Report No. 218, Melbourne Australia.

Persaud, B N, Retting, R A & Lyon, C (2003) Crash Reduction Following Installation of Centerline Rumble Strips on Rural Two-Lane Roads, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.

Radin Umar, R S, Mackay G M, and Hills B L (1995)  Preliminary analysis of motorcycle accidents:short term impacts of the running headlight campaign and regulation in Malaysia.  Journal of Traffic Medicine. Vol 23  ISSN 034-5564

Road and Traffic Authority (2004) Rural road crash rates by road stereotype, road environment safety update 22, RTA, Sydney, NSW, viewed 27 September 2007,


SAFESTAR  (1997)   Safety standards for road design and redesign.  Deliverable D4.2   Head-on and run off the road accidents on rural roads in Finland.   Project under the European Commission Fourth Framework programme.

Schoon  C S  (1997)   Roadside design for enhancing safety.   Paper to VTI conference 9A part 2.  VTI, Linkoping, Sweden.

Shen, J, Rodriguez, A, Gan, A & Brady, P (2004) Development and application of crash reduction factors: A state-of-the-practice survey of State Departments of Transportation. Presentation at the 83rd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board.

Sicking D L and H E Ross (1986)  Benefit-cost analysis of roadside safety alternatives.  Transportation Research Record 1065, pp 98-105.  Washington D C, USA. 

Silcock D T and Worsey G (1982) Relationships between accident rates, road characteristics and traffic on two urban routes.  TORG Research Report No 40. Transport Operations Research Group.  University of Newcastle upon Tyne. 

Stewart D (1988) Visibility and accidents at pedestrian, proceedings of the Conference on Vision in Vehicles, 2nd, 1987, Nottingham United Kingdom, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Stigson H. (2008)  Correlation between EuroRAP road safety ratings and crash severity and injury outcomes in crashes fitted with crash pulse recorder – personal communication

Stigson H, Ydenius A, Kullgren A. (2009) Variation in Crash Severity Depending on Different Vehicle Types and Objects as Collision Partner. International Journal of Crashworthiness, Vol. 14, No. 6, December 2009, pp 613–622

Taylor M C, Lynam D A and Baruya A (2000) The effect of drivers’ speed on the frequency of road accidents. TRL report 421. Transport Research Laboratory, Crowthorne.

Taylor M C, Baruya A and Kennedy J V (2002) The relationship between speed and accidents on rural single carriageway roads. TRL report 511. Transport Research Laboratory, Crowthorne.

Transportation Research Board (1987) Designing safer roads: practices for resurfacing, restoration and rehabilitation, special report 214, TRB, Washington, DC.

TRB (1998) Managing speed; Review of current practice for setting and enforcing speed limits. TRB Special Report 254. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.

Turner, B, Affum, J, Tziotis, M and Jurewicz, C (2009) Review of iRAP risk parameters 001496 Draft Contract Report, October.

Turner S, Roozenburg A P & Francis T 2006 Predicting accident rates for cyclists and pedestrians, Land Transport New Zealand Research Report 289, Wellington, New Zealand.

Turner, S, Binder, S & Roozenburg, A (2009a). Cycle safety: Reducing the crash risk. New Zealand Transport Agency Report RR389. Wellington, New Zealand.

Veith, G. (2005). Review of Austroads Roadside Barriers (Roadside Safety Guide) publication. ARRB Transport Research Report to Austroads, RC1570 / RS.SS.C.002.

Vogt and Bared (2000) Accident models for two-lane rural segments and intersections.  Transportation Research Record 1635.  Transportation Research Board, Washington

Walmsley D A, Summersgill I, and C Binch (1998)   Accidents on modern rural single-carriageway trunk roads.  TRL report 336. Transport Research Laboratory, Crowthorne.

Walmsley D A and I Summersgill (1998)   The relationship between road layout and accidents on modern rural trunk roads.   TRL Report TRL334.  Transport Research Laboratory, Crowthorne.

Winnett, M A & Wheeler, A H (2002) Vehicle-Activated Signs – A Large Scale Evaluation, TRL report TRL548, TRL Limited, United Kingdom.

Woods, D L; Rollins, J B; Crane, L M (1989). Guidelines for using wide paved shoulders on low volume two lane rural highways based on benefit cost analysis. Research Report, no.1114-1F, 41p, Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, Texas, USA Texas. State Department of Highways and Public Transportation, Austin, Texas, USA Report, no.FHWA/TX-89/1114-1F, United States. Federal Highway Administration.

Wright P H and Robertson L (1976).  Priorities for Roadside Hazard Modification: A Study of 300 Fatal Roadside Object Crashes.  Traffic Engineering, Vol. 46, No. 8. 

Zegeer, C V, Hummer, J, Herf, L, Reinfurt, D & Hunter, W (1987), Safety cost-effectiveness of incremental changes in cross-section design-informational guide, report FHWA/RD-87-094, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA.

Zegeer C V, Reinfurt D W, Hunter W W, Hummer J, Stewart R and L Herf (1988).  Accident effects of side slope and other roadside features on two-lane roads.  Transportation Research Record 1195, pp33-47.  Washington D C, USA.  

Zegeer C V, Stewart J R, Council F M, Reinfurt D W, and E Hamilton  (1992)  Safety Effects of Geometric Improvements on Horizontal Curves.  Transport Research Record 1356.   Transportation Research Board, Washington.

Learning Support Documents

Blumenfeld, P, C, Soloway, E, Marx, R, W, Krajcik, J, S, Guzdial, M, Palincsar, A, 1991, “Motivating project-based learning: sustaining the doing, supporting the learning”, Educational Psychologist, 26, 3–4, 369–98.

Leedy, P, D and Ormrod, J, E, Practical research: planning and design, 8th ed, Oxford: Pearson.

Kolmos, A, 1996, “Reflections on project work and problem-based learning”, European Journal of Engineering Education, 21, 2, 141–8.

Martin, J, R and Rothery, J, 1981, “Writing project No. 2”, in Working papers in linguistics, Linguistics Department, Sydney: University of Sydney.

Scarbrough, H, Swan, J, Laurent S, Bresnen, M, Edelman, L and Newell, S, 2004, “Project-based learning and the role of learning boundaries”, Organization Studies, 25, 9, 1579–1600.

Additional Road Safety Information

Safe at the wheel

Road safety resources